Document Type : Original Articles


1 Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercise, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan,

2 Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

3 Department of Sport Injuries and Corrective Exercise, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran

4 Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran


Background: The present study focuses on elucidating the effects of an eight-week combined turning exercise program on the physical performance of female students with Down syndrome (DS), a genetic disorder characterized by intellectual disability and often associated with weaker muscle strength. Individuals with DS typically exhibit reduced muscle strength due to a lower percentage of slow-twitch muscle fibers and a diminished overall number of muscle fibers.
Methods:Methods: In this semi-experimental clinical trial, the authors used purposive sampling to enroll 26 female students diagnosed with DS. Participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=13; mean age: 12.15±1.62 years, mean height: 139.23±8.94 cm, mean weight: 42.62±13.44 kg, mean IQ: 63.02±5.54) and a control group (n=13; mean age: 12.23±1.53 years, mean height: 141.15±10.31 cm, mean weight: 45.46±15.94 kg, mean IQ: 63.05±5.49). The authors evaluated muscle strength using a hand-held digital dynamometer, push-up test, long jump, and sit-up before and after the eight-week training period. The experimental group underwent a combined turning training program lasting 45-60 minutes daily, thrice a week, for eight weeks. We analyzed the data using repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a significance level set at p≤0.05.
Results: The findings revealed a significant enhancement in physical performance among participants in the experimental group compared to those in the control group (p≤0.05). Specifically, the combined turning exercise program positively influenced upper body, middle body, and lower body muscle strength in female students diagnosed with DS.
Conclusion: The results of this investigation imply that incorporating combined turning exercises could serve as an effective strategy for enhancing muscle strength among female students diagnosed with DS. Integrating these exercises into rehabilitation programs tailored for individuals with DS may improve their physical performance and enhance their overall quality of life.


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