Document Type : Original Articles


1 Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University of Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Faculty of Education and Psychology, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Health, Exercise Science, and Recreation Management, The University of Mississippi, USA; Email:

4 Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Azad University of Tehran, Iran


Background: This study investigated the effects of the aerobic exercise with
music on anxiety, depression, motor proficiency, and cognitive ability of boys
with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study. Participant’s comprised a
convenience sample of 36 boys with ADHD. The experimental group (N=18)
practiced in non-linear pedagogy (M years=11.32, SD=1.00), whereas the control
group (N=18) performed (M years=11.26, SD=0.92) usual school activities in the
traditional method.
Results: After participating in the 8-week aerobic training program, motor
proficiency, anxiety, depression, working memory, perceptual reasoning, and
processing speed were improved in the experimental group compared to the
control group (p <0.001).
Conclusion: Based on these findings, among the ADHD children, incorporating
music into sports can affect children’s anxiety, depression, motor proficiency,
and cognitive ability. Increasing participation by incorporating music into sports
such as aerobics, can affect children’s anxiety, depression, motor proficiency, and
cognitive ability.


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