Document Type : Original Articles


1 PhD in corrective exercises and sports injuries. Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kish International campus, university of Tehran, Kish, Iran

2 Department of Health and Exercise Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Tehran, Iran,

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Corrective Exercises and Sport Injury, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kish International University, Kish, Iran

5 Center of Excellence for Occupational Health, Occupational Health and Safety Research Center, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran


Background: Approach on the diving springboard provides the initial conditions
for the disturbance in the stability of the base of support. The present study is a
correlational study conducted to obtain complete and accurate information by
examining “the relationship between diving score and dynamic malalignment
of Hip, Knee, and Ankle on a 1 m springboard by elite male divers.”
Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, the subjects of this study were the
12 top divers of the Iranian League Championship in summer 2016. The passive
or reflective markers were attached to the posterior surface of subjects’ bodies.
The subjects performed Forward Diving Straight (FDS) technique in one of two
ways, either the “Hurdle Pre-Flight” or “Hurdle Flight”, and the head coach
gave them scores. The x and y coordinates of each marker were estimated using
KINOVEA software. The relationship among the performance score of “FDS”
and dynamic malalignment of Ankle, Knee, and Hip joints in the frontal plane
at each step was determined using “Generalized Estimating Equation” (GEE)
with the “Identity Function” and the “Normal Distribution”.
Results: The Results of GEE modeling showed that there was a significant inverse
relationship between FDS score and “L. The mean ankle inversion in the (Hurdle
pre-Flight) HPF approach was higher than Traditional (TRD). There was a
significant inverse relationship between the FDS score and “L. Hip Add.” The
results of GEE modeling showed that there was a significant difference between
mean scores of TRD-FDS (4.39±0.33) and HPF-FDS (5.67±0.33) approach
Conclusion: There was a significant inverse relationship between FDS score and
“Ankle Eversion/ Eversion, Knee and Hip Abduction/ Adduction” in Swing or
Stance Leg.


1. Minoonejad H, Barati AH, Naderifar H, Heidari B, Kazemi AS,Lashay A. Effect of four weeks of ocular-motor exercises on dynamic visual acuity and stability limit of female basketball players. Gait & posture. 2019;73:286-90.
2. Harrison SM, Cohen RC, Cleary PW, Barris S, Rose G, editors.Forces on the body during elite competitive platform diving. Ninth International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries CSIRO; 2012.
3. Tamura A, Akasaka K, Otsudo T. Contribution of lower extremity joints on energy absorption during soft landing. IJERPH. 2021;18(10):5130.
4. Thng S. Relationship of changes in strength and power characteristics to swimming start performance. 2020.
5. Seyed HMA, BARATI AH, Shirzad AE, Akoochakian M.Determination of risk factors for lower extremity injury by video analysis during springboard diving. 2020.
6. Pereira R, Machado M, Miragaya dos Santos M, Pereira LN, Sampaio-Jorge F. Muscle activation sequence compromises vertical jump performance. Serb J Sports Sci. 2008;2(3):85-90.
7. Schmitz RJ, Shultz SJ, Nguyen A-D. Dynamic valgus alignment and functional strength in males and females during maturation.JAT. 2009;44(1):26-32.
8. Cote KP, Brunet ME, II BMG, Shultz SJ. Effects of pronated and supinated foot postures on static and dynamic postural stability.JAT. 2005;40(1):41.
9. Elphinston J. Stability, sport, and performance movement: great technique without injury: North Atlantic Books; 2008.
10. Huber J. Springboard and platform diving: Human Kinetics; 2015.11. Sinclair PJ, Walker CA, Cobley S, editors. Variability and the control of rotation during springboard diving. ISBS-Conference Proceedings Archive; 2014.
12. Walker CA, Sinclair PJ, Cobley S, editors. A Kinematic Analysis of the Backward 2.5 Somersaults with 1.5 Twists Dive (5253b) from the 3m Springboard. ISBS-Conference Proceedings Archive; 2015.
13. Miller DI, Hennig E, Pizzimenti MA, Jones IC, Nelson RC. Kinetic and kinematic characteristics of 10-m platform performances of elite divers: I. Back takeoffs. Journal of Applied Biomechanics. 1989;5(1):60-88.
14. Chen J, Zhang C, Chen S, Zhao Y. Effects of functional correction training on injury risk of athletes: a systematic review and metaanalysis. PeerJ. 2021;9:e11089.
15. Rubin BD. The basics of competitive diving and its injuries. Clinics in sports medicine. 1999;18(2):293-303.
16. Tamura A, Akasaka K, Otsudo T, Shiozawa J, Toda Y, Yamada K. Dynamic knee valgus alignment influences impact attenuation in the lower extremity during the deceleration phase of a single-leglanding. PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0179810.
17. Dill KE, Begalle RL, Frank BS, Zinder SM, Padua DA. Altered knee and ankle kinematics during squatting in those with limited weight-bearing–lunge ankle-dorsiflexion range of motion. JAT.2014;49(6):723-32.
18. Quatman CE, Ford KR, Myer GD, Hewett TE. Maturation leads to gender differences in landing force and vertical jump performance:a longitudinal study. AJSM. 2006;34(5):806-13.
19. Wikstrom E, Tillman M, Schenker S, Borsa P. Failed jump landing trials: deficits in neuromuscular control. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2008;18(1):55-61.
20. I. Miller D, Osborne MJ, Jones IC. Springboard oscillation during hurdle flight. Journal of Sports Sciences. 1998;16(6):571-83.
21. Parry J. The Youth Olympic Games–Some Ethical Issues. Sport,Ethics and Philosophy. 2012;6(2):138-54.
22. Wardany S, Sayed W, Ali M. Validity of Kinovea computerprogram in measuring cervical range of motion in frontal plane.Med Cairo Univ. 2016;84(1):579-87.
23. Puig-Diví A, Padullés-Riu JM, Busquets-Faciaben A, Padullés-Chando X, Escalona-Marfil C, Marcos-Ruiz D. Validity and reliability of the kinovea program in obtaining angular and distance dimensions. 2017.
24. Vuillerme N, Nougier V. Attentional demand for regulating postural sway: the effect of expertise in gymnastics. BRB.2004;63(2):161-5.
25. Sanders RH, Wilson BD. Factors contributing to maximum height of dives after takeoff from the 3m springboard. JAB.1988;4(3):231-59.
26. Walker CA. Functional analysis of stability and variability in multiple forward somersaulting dives from the 3m springboard.2016.
27. Barss P, Djerrari H, Leduc BE, Lepage Y, Dionne CE. Risk factors and prevention for spinal cord injury from diving in swimming pools and natural sites in Quebec, Canada: a 44-year study. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2008;40(2):787-97.
28. Naderifar H, Minoonejad H, Barati AH, Lashay A. Effect of a neck proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation training program on body postural stability in elite female basketball players.JRSR. 2018;5(2):41-5.