Background: On the one hand, very few studies have been performed to identify active areas during swallowing in healthy individuals and people with dementia, and on the other hand, there are no studies which compare brain atrophies in dementia patients with and without dysphagia, until the researchers know which brain atrophic areas lead to dysphagia. The aim of this study was to evaluate brain atrophies in dementia patients in Medial temporal lobe (hippocampus), frontal lobe (and anterior cingulate), parietal lobe (and posterior cingulate) and insula cortex.Methods: The present study is a retrospective cross-sectional study. 54 patients with dementia were studied. Data were collected using a checklist that included age, sex, duration of disease and swallowing information, and brain atrophy findings based on MRI reports. Atherosclerotic changes of the medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) score, Koedam score scale and The global cortical atrophy (GCA) scale were recorded in the checklist. The descriptive indexes of subjects applied to report the results and Chi-square test used to compare two groups.Results: The mean age of the patients was 72.01 with a standard deviation of 10.64 years, and rang of 50-95 years. 32 patients (59.3%) were male and 22 patients (40.7%) were female with hippocampal atrophy (P = 0.12), frontal lobe atrophy (P = 0.46), parietal lobe atrophy (P = 0.83) and insular cortical atrophy (P = 0.91),did not show a significant difference in patients with and without swallowing disorders. The frequency distribution of the degree of atrophy based on the site of atrophy was significant in patients with dysphagia (P = 0.033). Conclusion: In general, the results of the present study show that the rate of atrophy of the hippocampus and frontal lobe (and anterior cingulate) in dementia patients with dysphagia is higher than dementia patients without dysphagia.