Document Type : Literature Reviews

Authors

1 Department of Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 Rehabilitation Sciences Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

3 Student Research Committee, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

Background: The acquisition of reading skills is one the most important 
challenges a cochlear implanted child faces in his/her life. Although cochlear
implants can improve speech, language, and reading skills, some children
continue to experience reading difficulties. Some studies have reviewed the
reading skills in English-speaking children with cochlear implants; however,
language and cultural discrepancies may result in diverse aural rehabilitation
programs and varying effects of factors on reading in these children. The aim
of the present study is to review evidence regarding reading skills, including
phonological awareness, reading comprehension, vocabulary, and story retelling
in preschool and school-aged children with unilateral cochlear implants in Iran.
Results: Overall, the findings of studies in this area suggest that Persianspeaking
preschool and school-aged children with unilateral cochlear implants
show worse reading performance compared with their normal hearing peers.
Conclusion: Impaired reading skills in children with cochlear implants
necessitates the identification of reading problems and targeted aural
rehabilitation programs to improve reading skills in these children. Future
studies over longer periods are necessary in order to determine the reading
developmental trajectory of children with cochlear implants in Iran. In addition,
investigating the precise role of underpinning abilities such as language and
hearing skills in reading development can help children with cochlear implants
achieve age-appropriate reading skills.

Keywords

1. Smith RJ, Bale Jr JF, White KR. Sensorineural hearing loss in children. Lancet. 2005;365(9462):879-90.
2. Sharma A, Dorman MF, Kral A. The influence of a sensitive period on central auditory development in children with unilateral and bilateral cochlear implants. Hear Res. 2005;203(1-2):134-43.
3. Zeng F-G. Trends in cochlear implants. Trends Amplif. 2004;8(1):1-34.
4. Oliveira KLSd, Feitosa ALF, Depolli GT, Pedruzzi CM. Reading and writing performance in cochlear implant users: integrative review. Audiol Commun Res. 2020;25:e2298.
5. Zeng F-G, Rebscher S, Harrison W, Sun X, Feng H. Cochlear implants: system design, integration, and evaluation. IEEE Rev Biomed Eng. 2008;1:115-42.
6. Gallego C, Martín-Aragoneses MT, López-Higes R, Pisón G. Semantic and syntactic reading comprehension strategies used by deaf children with early and late cochlear implantation. Res Dev Disabil. 2016;49:153-70.
7. Doosti A, Jalalipour M, Ahmadi T, Hashemi SB, Haghjou S, Bakhshi E. Enhancing working memory capacity in Persian cochlear implanted children: a clinical trial study. Iran  J otorhinolaryngol. 2018;30(97):77.
8. Wass M, Anmyr L, Lyxell B, Östlund E, Karltorp E, Löfkvist U. Predictors of reading comprehension in children with cochlear implants. Front Psychol. 2019;10:2155.
9. Guerzoni L, Mancini P, Nicastri M, Fabrizi E, Giallini I, Cuda D. Does early cochlear implantation promote better reading comprehension skills? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2020;133:109976.
10. Geers AE, Hayes H. Reading, writing, and phonological processing skills of adolescents with 10 or more years of cochlear implant experience. Ear Hear. 2011;32(1):49S.
11. Mayer C, Trezek BJ. Literacy outcomes in deaf students with cochlear implants: Current state of the knowledge. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2018;23(1):1-16.
12. Punch R, Hyde MB. Communication, psychosocial, and educational outcomes of children with cochlear implants and challenges remaining for professionals and parents. Int J Otolaryngol. 2011;2011.
13. Vágvölgyi R, Coldea A, Dresler T, Schrader J, Nuerk H-C. A review about functional illiteracy: Definition, cognitive, linguistic, and numerical aspects. Front Psychol. 2016;7:1617.
14. Farah I. The cultural benefits of literacy. Background paper for EFA Glob Monit Rep. 2006.
15. Stromquist N. The political benefits of adult literacy. Background paper for EFA Glob Monit Rep. 2006;2005.
16. Nittrouer S, Caldwell A, Lowenstein JH, Tarr E, Holloman C. Emergent literacy in kindergartners with cochlear implants. Ear Hear. 2012;33(6):683.
17. Tye-Murray N. Foundations of Aural Rehabilitation: Children, Adults, and Their Family Members, Fifth Edition: Plural Publishing, Incorporated; 2019.
18. Spencer LJ, Tomblin JB. Evaluating phonological processing skills in children with prelingual deafness who use cochlear implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2009;14(1):1-21.
19. Mayer C, Watson L, Archbold S, Ng ZY, Mulla I. Reading and writing skills of deaf pupils with cochlear implants. Deaf Educ Int. 2016;18(2):71-86.
20. Weisi F, Rezaei M, Rashedi V, Heidari A, Ebrahimi-Pour M. Comparison of reading skills between children with cochlear implants and children with typical hearing in Iran. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77(8):1317-21.
21. James D, Rajput K, Brinton J, Goswami U. Phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in children who use cochlear implants: Does age of implantation explain individual variability in performance outcomes and growth? J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2008;13(1):117-37.
22. Melby-Lervåg M, Lyster S-AH, Hulme C. Phonological skills and their role in learning to read: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull. 2012;138(2):322.
23. Bradley L, Bryant PE. Categorizing sounds and learning to read—a causal connection. Nature. 1983;301(5899):419-21.
24. Storch SA, Whitehurst GJ. Oral language and code-related precursors to reading: evidence from a longitudinal structural model. Dev Psychol. 2002;38(6):934.
25. Archbold S, Harris M, O’Donoghue G, Nikolopoulos T, White A, Richmond HL. Reading abilities after cochlear implantation: The effect of age at implantation on outcomes at 5 and 7 years after implantation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72(10):1471-8.
26. Perfetti CA, Sandak R. Reading optimally builds on spoken language: Implications for deaf readers. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2000;5(1):32-50.
27. Catts HW, Adlof SM, Weismer SE. Language deficits in poor comprehenders: A case for the simple view of reading. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2006;49:278-93.
28. Network NECCR. Pathways to reading: The role of oral language in the transition to reading. Dev Psychol. 2005;41(2):428-42.
29. Svirsky MA, Robbins AM, Kirk KI, Pisoni DB, Miyamoto RT. Language development in profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants. Psychol Sci. 2000;11(2):153-8.
30. Wauters LN, Tellings AE, Van Bon WH, Van Haaften AW. Mode of acquisition of word meanings: The viability of a theoretical construct. Appl Psycholinguist. 2003;24(3):385-406.
31. Dillon CM, Pisoni DB. Non word repetition and reading skills in children who are deaf and have cochlear implants.Volta Rev. 2006;106(2):121.
32. Pooresmaeil E, Mohamadi R, Ghorbani A, Kamali M. The relationship between comprehension of syntax and reading comprehension in cochlear implanted and hearing children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2019;121:114-9.
33. Johnson C, Goswami U, editors. Phonological skills, vocabulary development, and reading development in children with cochlear implants. 20th International Congress on the Education of the Deaf, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2005.
34. Geers AE. Factors affecting the development of speech, language, and literacy in children with early cochlear implantation. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch. 2002;33:172-83.
35. Karami-Nouri R, Moradi A. Nama reading test. Tehran: Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research. 2008.
36. Rezaei M, Rashedi V, Morasae EK. Reading skills in Persian deaf children with cochlear implants and hearing aids. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;89:1-5.
37. Haghjoo A, Soleymani Z, Dadgar H. Effect of Cochlear Implant and Hearing aid on Reading skill in Hearing-Impaired Children. J Disabil Stud. 2018;8:69.
38. Motesadi ZM, Rezaei H, Mahdavi AM, Golestan B. The scholastic achievement of profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants compared to their normal peers. Arch Iranian Med. 2009;12(5):441-7
39. Apel K, Masterson JJ. Comparing the spelling and reading abilities of students with cochlear implants and students with typical hearing. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2015;20(2):125-35.
40. Dillon CM, de Jong K, Pisoni DB. Phonological awareness, reading skills, and vocabulary knowledge in children who use cochlear implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2012;17(2):205-26.
41. Soleymani Z, Mahmoodabadi N, Nouri MM. Language skills and phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and normal hearing. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;83:16-21.
42. Von Muenster K, Baker E. Oral communicating children using a cochlear implant: good reading outcomes are linked to better language and phonological processing abilities. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;78(3):433-44.
43. Safaeian Titkanlou S, Maleki Shahmahmood T, Ghayoumi-Anaraki Z, Haresabadi F, Haddadi Avval M, Soltani M, et al. Comparing the Phonological Awareness Skills Between Persian-speaking Monolingual Cochlear-implanted and Healthy Children. J Arak Uni Med Sci. 2020;23(6):840-9.
44. Sterne A, Goswami U. Phonological awareness of syllables, rhymes, and phonemes in deaf children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000;41(5):609-25.
45. James D, Rajput K, Brown T, Sirimanna T, Brinton J, Goswami U. Phonological awareness in deaf children who use cochlear implants. ASHA. 2005;48:1511-48.
46. DesJardin JL, Ambrose SE, Eisenberg LS. Literacy skills in children with cochlear implants: The importance of early oral language and joint storybook reading. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2009;14(1):22-43.
47. Adams MJ. Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print: MIT Press; 1994.
48. Stahl SA, Murray BA. Defining phonological awareness and its relationship to early reading. J Educ Psychol. 1994;86(2):221.
49. Mahmoodabadi N, Soleymani Z, Khodami M, Ajalloeian M, Jalaei S. A comparative study of performance of normal and cochlear implanted children in two phonological awareness tests. J Sabzevar Uni Med Sci. 2014;20(4):547-55.
50. Rastegarianzadeh N, Shahbodaghi M, Faghihzadeh S. Study of phonological awareness of preschool and school aged children with cochlear implant and normal hearing. Korean J Audiol. 2014;18(2):50.
51. Harris M, Terlektsi E, Kyle FE. Concurrent and longitudinal predictors of reading for deaf and hearing children in primary school. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2017;22(2):233-42.
52. Harris M, Terlektsi E. Reading and spelling abilities of deaf adolescents with cochlear implants and hearing aids. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2011;16(1):24-34.
53. Kyle FE, Harris M. Predictors of reading development in deaf children: A 3-year longitudinal study. J Exp Child Psychol. 2010;107(3):229-43.
54. Gholamiyan Arefi M, Hosseini S, Sobhani-Rad D. Comparison of Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension Skills between The Three Groups of Fourth Grade Students Who Received Hearing Aid, Cochlear Implant and Normal in Mashhad. J Paramed Sci Rehabil. 2020;9(2):7-15.
55. Hoover WA, Gough PB. The simple view of reading. Read Writ. 1990;2(2):127-60.
56. Vermeulen AM, Van Bon W, Schreuder R, Knoors H, Snik A. Reading comprehension of deaf children with cochlear implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2007;12(3):283-302.
57. López-Higes R, Gallego C, Martín-Aragoneses MT, Melle N. Morpho-syntactic reading comprehension in children with early and late cochlear implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2015;20(2):136-46.
58. Jalalipour M, Moosavifard A, Orooji M. Correlation between reading and story retelling skills in Persian-speaking cochlear-implanted children: A comparison with normal hearing peers. In: Morteza M, editor. Paper presented at: 6th Scientific – Cultural Symposium on the Hearing-Impaired Child and Family; Shiraz, Iran2017 October 10-11.
59. Rahimi M, Sadighi F, Razeghi S. A comparison of linguistic skills between persian cochlear implant and normal hearing children. Iran Rehabil J. 2013;11(2):11-9.
60. Soltaninejad N, Jalilevand N, Kamali M, Mohamadi R. Effect of grammar intervention on vocabulary skills in children with a cochlear implant: A single-subject study. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2021;35(1):940-6.
61. Rezaiyan F, Movallali G, Adibsereshki N, Bakhshi E. The effectiveness of online dialogic storytelling on vocabulary Skills of hard of hearing children. Iran Rehabil J. 2020;18(3):319-28.
62. Crosson J, Geers A. Analysis of narrative ability in children with cochlear implants. Ear Hear. 2001;22(5):381-94.
63. Murri A, Cuda D, Guerzoni L, Fabrizi E. Narrative abilities in early implanted children. Laryngoscope. 2015;125(7):1685-90.
64. Boons T, De Raeve L, Langereis M, Peeraer L, Wouters J, Van Wieringen A. Narrative spoken language skills in severely hearing impaired school-aged children with cochlear implants. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34(11):3833-46.
65. Zanchi P, Zampini L, Berici R. Narrative competence in Italian children with cochlear implants: a comparison with children matched by chronological or hearing age. Clin Linguist Phon. 2021;35(3):277-92.
66. Crosson J, Geers AE. Structural analysis of narratives produced by a group of young cochlear implant users. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2000;109(12):118.
67. Jafari S, Agharasouli Z, Modaresi Y, Kamali M. Developing a story retelling test for the assessment of language structure in Persian-speaking children. Audiol-Tehran Uni Med Sci. 2012;21(3):51-61.
68. Jarollahi F, Mohamadi R, Modarresi Y, Agharasouli Z, Rahimzadeh S, Ahmadi T, et al. Story retelling skills in Persian speaking hearing-impaired children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;96:84-8.
69. RezaeiRad M, Lotfi G, SeifPanahi MS, Ghasemi A. Comparison of the narrative discourse between cochlear implanted and normal hearing children. In: Dadgar H, editor. 16th Iranian Congress on Speech Therapy; Tehran, Iran: 16th Iranian Congress on Speech Therapy; 2018 May 23. p. 78.
70. Mirza AS, Movallali G, Taheri M, Esteki M. The effect of Cued Speech on story retelling in late implanted prelingual hearing impaired students. Audit Vestib Res. 2015;24(1):25-30.
71. Ghasemzadeh S, Kazemian L. Effectiveness of Creative Drama on the Language Skills of 4-6 Year-Old Children with Cochlear Implants. J Rehabil Med. 2018;7(2):182-91.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
1. Smith RJ, Bale Jr JF, White KR. Sensorineural hearing loss in children. Lancet. 2005;365(9462):879-90.
2. Sharma A, Dorman MF, Kral A. The influence of a sensitive period on central auditory development in children with unilateral and bilateral cochlear implants. Hear Res. 2005;203(1-2):134-43.
3. Zeng F-G. Trends in cochlear implants. Trends Amplif. 2004;8(1):1-34.
4. Oliveira KLSd, Feitosa ALF, Depolli GT, Pedruzzi CM. Reading and writing performance in cochlear implant users: integrative review. Audiol Commun Res. 2020;25:e2298.
5. Zeng F-G, Rebscher S, Harrison W, Sun X, Feng H. Cochlear implants: system design, integration, and evaluation. IEEE Rev Biomed Eng. 2008;1:115-42.
6. Gallego C, Martín-Aragoneses MT, López-Higes R, Pisón G. Semantic and syntactic reading comprehension strategies used by deaf children with early and late cochlear implantation. Res Dev Disabil. 2016;49:153-70.
7. Doosti A, Jalalipour M, Ahmadi T, Hashemi SB, Haghjou S, Bakhshi E. Enhancing working memory capacity in Persian cochlear implanted children: a clinical trial study. Iran  J otorhinolaryngol. 2018;30(97):77.
8. Wass M, Anmyr L, Lyxell B, Östlund E, Karltorp E, Löfkvist U. Predictors of reading comprehension in children with cochlear implants. Front Psychol. 2019;10:2155.
9. Guerzoni L, Mancini P, Nicastri M, Fabrizi E, Giallini I, Cuda D. Does early cochlear implantation promote better reading comprehension skills? Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2020;133:109976.
10. Geers AE, Hayes H. Reading, writing, and phonological processing skills of adolescents with 10 or more years of cochlear implant experience. Ear Hear. 2011;32(1):49S.
11. Mayer C, Trezek BJ. Literacy outcomes in deaf students with cochlear implants: Current state of the knowledge. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2018;23(1):1-16.
12. Punch R, Hyde MB. Communication, psychosocial, and educational outcomes of children with cochlear implants and challenges remaining for professionals and parents. Int J Otolaryngol. 2011;2011.
13. Vágvölgyi R, Coldea A, Dresler T, Schrader J, Nuerk H-C. A review about functional illiteracy: Definition, cognitive, linguistic, and numerical aspects. Front Psychol. 2016;7:1617.
14. Farah I. The cultural benefits of literacy. Background paper for EFA Glob Monit Rep. 2006.
15. Stromquist N. The political benefits of adult literacy. Background paper for EFA Glob Monit Rep. 2006;2005.
16. Nittrouer S, Caldwell A, Lowenstein JH, Tarr E, Holloman C. Emergent literacy in kindergartners with cochlear implants. Ear Hear. 2012;33(6):683.
17. Tye-Murray N. Foundations of Aural Rehabilitation: Children, Adults, and Their Family Members, Fifth Edition: Plural Publishing, Incorporated; 2019.
18. Spencer LJ, Tomblin JB. Evaluating phonological processing skills in children with prelingual deafness who use cochlear implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2009;14(1):1-21.
19. Mayer C, Watson L, Archbold S, Ng ZY, Mulla I. Reading and writing skills of deaf pupils with cochlear implants. Deaf Educ Int. 2016;18(2):71-86.
20. Weisi F, Rezaei M, Rashedi V, Heidari A, Ebrahimi-Pour M. Comparison of reading skills between children with cochlear implants and children with typical hearing in Iran. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013;77(8):1317-21.
21. James D, Rajput K, Brinton J, Goswami U. Phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in children who use cochlear implants: Does age of implantation explain individual variability in performance outcomes and growth? J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2008;13(1):117-37.
22. Melby-Lervåg M, Lyster S-AH, Hulme C. Phonological skills and their role in learning to read: a meta-analytic review. Psychol Bull. 2012;138(2):322.
23. Bradley L, Bryant PE. Categorizing sounds and learning to read—a causal connection. Nature. 1983;301(5899):419-21.
24. Storch SA, Whitehurst GJ. Oral language and code-related precursors to reading: evidence from a longitudinal structural model. Dev Psychol. 2002;38(6):934.
25. Archbold S, Harris M, O’Donoghue G, Nikolopoulos T, White A, Richmond HL. Reading abilities after cochlear implantation: The effect of age at implantation on outcomes at 5 and 7 years after implantation. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2008;72(10):1471-8.
26. Perfetti CA, Sandak R. Readingoptimally builds on spoken language: Implications for deaf readers. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2000;5(1):32-50.
27. Catts HW, Adlof SM, Weismer SE. Language deficits in poor comprehenders: A case for the simple view of reading. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2006;49:278-93.
28. Network NECCR. Pathways to reading: The role of oral language in the transition to reading. Dev Psychol. 2005;41(2):428-42.
29. Svirsky MA, Robbins AM, Kirk KI, Pisoni DB, Miyamoto RT. Language development in profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants. Psychol Sci. 2000;11(2):153-8.
30. Wauters LN, Tellings AE, Van Bon WH, Van Haaften AW. Mode of acquisition of word meanings: The viability of a theoretical construct. Appl Psycholinguist. 2003;24(3):385-406.
31. Dillon CM, Pisoni DB. Non word repetition and reading skills in children who are deaf and have cochlear implants.Volta Rev. 2006;106(2):121.
32. Pooresmaeil E, Mohamadi R, Ghorbani A, Kamali M. The relationship between comprehension of syntax and reading comprehension in cochlear implanted and hearing children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2019;121:114-9.
33. Johnson C, Goswami U, editors. Phonological skills, vocabulary development, and reading development in children with cochlear implants. 20th International Congress on the Education of the Deaf, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2005.
34. Geers AE. Factors affecting the development of speech, language, and literacy in children with early cochlear implantation. Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch. 2002;33:172-83.
35. Karami-Nouri R, Moradi A. Nama reading test. Tehran: Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research. 2008.
36. Rezaei M, Rashedi V, Morasae EK. Reading skills in Persian deaf children with cochlear implants and hearing aids. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;89:1-5.
37. Haghjoo A, Soleymani Z, Dadgar H. Effect of Cochlear Implant and Hearing aid on Reading skill in Hearing-Impaired Children. J Disabil Stud. 2018;8:69.
38. Motesadi ZM, Rezaei H, Mahdavi AM, Golestan B. The scholastic achievement of profoundly deaf children with cochlear implants compared to their normal peers. Arch Iranian Med. 2009;12(5):441-7
39. Apel K, Masterson JJ. Comparing the spelling and reading abilities of students with cochlear implants and students with typical hearing. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2015;20(2):125-35.
40. Dillon CM, de Jong K, Pisoni DB. Phonological awareness, reading skills, and vocabulary knowledge in children who use cochlear implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2012;17(2):205-26.
41. SoleymaniZ, Mahmoodabadi N, Nouri MM. Language skills and phonological awareness in children with cochlear implants and normal hearing. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2016;83:16-21.
42. Von Muenster K, Baker E. Oral communicating childrenusing a cochlear implant: good reading outcomes are linked to better language and phonological processing abilities. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;78(3):433-44.
43. Safaeian Titkanlou S, Maleki Shahmahmood T, Ghayoumi-Anaraki Z, Haresabadi F, Haddadi Avval M, Soltani M, et al. Comparing the Phonological Awareness Skills Between Persian-speaking Monolingual Cochlear-implanted and Healthy Children. J Arak Uni Med Sci. 2020;23(6):840-9.
44. Sterne A, Goswami U. Phonological awareness of syllables, rhymes, and phonemes in deaf children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2000;41(5):609-25.
45. James D, Rajput K, Brown T, Sirimanna T, Brinton J, Goswami U. Phonological awareness in deaf children who use cochlear implants. ASHA. 2005;48:1511-48.
46. DesJardin JL, Ambrose SE, Eisenberg LS. Literacy skills in children with cochlear implants: The importance of early oral language and joint storybook reading. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2009;14(1):22-43.
47. Adams MJ. Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print: MIT Press; 1994.
48. Stahl SA, Murray BA. Defining phonological awareness and its relationship to early reading. J Educ Psychol. 1994;86(2):221.
49. Mahmoodabadi N, Soleymani Z, Khodami M, Ajalloeian M, Jalaei S. A comparative study of performance of normal and cochlear implanted children in two phonological awareness tests. J Sabzevar Uni Med Sci. 2014;20(4):547-55.
50. Rastegarianzadeh N, Shahbodaghi M, Faghihzadeh S. Study of phonological awareness of preschool and school aged children with cochlear implant and normal hearing. Korean J Audiol. 2014;18(2):50.
51. Harris M, Terlektsi E, Kyle FE. Concurrent and longitudinal predictors of reading for deaf and hearing children in primary school. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2017;22(2):233-42.
52. Harris M, Terlektsi E. Reading and spelling abilities of deaf adolescents with cochlear implants and hearing aids. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2011;16(1):24-34.
53. Kyle FE, Harris M. Predictors of reading development in deaf children: A 3-year longitudinal study. J Exp Child Psychol. 2010;107(3):229-43.
54. Gholamiyan Arefi M, Hosseini S, Sobhani-Rad D. Comparison of Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension Skills between The Three Groups of Fourth Grade Students Who Received Hearing Aid, Cochlear Implant and Normal in Mashhad. J Paramed Sci Rehabil. 2020;9(2):7-15.
55. Hoover WA, Gough PB. The simple view of reading. Read Writ. 1990;2(2):127-60.
56. Vermeulen AM, Van Bon W, Schreuder R, Knoors H, Snik A. Reading comprehension of deaf children with cochlear implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2007;12(3):283-302.
57. López-Higes R, Gallego C, Martín-Aragoneses MT, Melle N. Morpho-syntactic reading comprehension in children with early and late cochlear implants. J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ. 2015;20(2):136-46.
58. Jalalipour M, Moosavifard A, Orooji M. Correlationbetween reading and story retelling skills in Persian-speaking cochlear-implanted children: A comparison with normal hearing peers. In: Morteza M, editor. Paper presented at: 6th Scientific – Cultural Symposium on the Hearing-Impaired Child and Family; Shiraz, Iran2017 October 10-11.
59. Rahimi M, Sadighi F, Razeghi S. A comparison of linguistic skills between persian cochlear implant and normal hearing children. Iran Rehabil J. 2013;11(2):11-9.
60. Soltaninejad N, Jalilevand N, Kamali M, Mohamadi R. Effect of grammar intervention on vocabulary skills in children with a cochlear implant: A single-subject study. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2021;35(1):940-6.
61. Rezaiyan F, Movallali G, Adibsereshki N, Bakhshi E. The effectiveness of online dialogic storytelling on vocabulary Skills of hard of hearing children. Iran Rehabil J. 2020;18(3):319-28.
62. Crosson J, Geers A. Analysis of narrative ability in children with cochlear implants. Ear Hear. 2001;22(5):381-94.
63. Murri A, Cuda D, Guerzoni L, Fabrizi E. Narrative abilities in early implanted children. Laryngoscope. 2015;125(7):1685-90.
64. Boons T, De Raeve L, Langereis M, Peeraer L, Wouters J, Van Wieringen A. Narrative spoken language skills in severely hearing impaired school-aged children with cochlear implants. Res Dev Disabil. 2013;34(11):3833-46.
65. Zanchi P, Zampini L, Berici R. Narrative competence in Italian children with cochlear implants: a comparison with children matched by chronological or hearing age. Clin Linguist Phon. 2021;35(3):277-92.
66. Crosson J, Geers AE. Structural analysis of narratives produced by a group of young cochlear implant users. Ann Otol RhinolLaryngol. 2000;109(12):118.
67. Jafari S, Agharasouli Z, Modaresi Y, Kamali M. Developing a story retelling test for the assessment of language structure in Persian-speaking children. Audiol-Tehran Uni Med Sci. 2012;21(3):51-61.
68. Jarollahi F, Mohamadi R, Modarresi Y, Agharasouli Z, Rahimzadeh S, Ahmadi T, et al. Story retelling skills in Persian speaking hearing-impaired children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;96:84-8.
69. RezaeiRad M, Lotfi G, SeifPanahi MS, Ghasemi A. Comparison of the narrative discourse between cochlear implanted and normal hearing children. In: Dadgar H, editor. 16th Iranian Congress on Speech Therapy; Tehran, Iran: 16th Iranian Congress on Speech Therapy; 2018 May 23. p. 78.
70. Mirza AS, Movallali G, Taheri M, Esteki M. The effect of Cued Speech on story retelling in late implanted prelingual hearing impaired students. Audit Vestib Res. 2015;24(1):25-30.
71. Ghasemzadeh S, Kazemian L. Effectiveness of Creative Drama on the Language Skills of 4-6 Year-Old Children with Cochlear Implants. J Rehabil Med. 2018;7(2):182-91.