Document Type : Original Articles


1 Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Sport Injury and Corrective Exercise Student, Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Sport Injury and Corrective Exercise Student, Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

4 Sport Injury and Corrective Exercise, Hearing Disorders Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran


Background: Thoracic hyper-kyphosis is one of the most common postural
disorders of the spinal column. Decreased strength of spinal extensor muscles
and range of motion of joints such as the shoulder is associated with hyperkyphosis,
which can affect the physical function and life of an individual. The f
present study aimed to investigate the effect of thoracic hyper-kyphosis on upper
extremity function among female students.
Methods: The current cross-sectional study included a population consisting
of 226 female students aged 13-18 years old divided into two groups: 113
participants with normal and 113 with abnormal thoracic hyper-kyphosis. The
kyphosis angle was measured using a flexible ruler, and the Y test, Davis test, and
disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) questionnaire were used to
measure upper extremity function. Independent t-test and Pearson’s correlation
were employed for data analysis.
Results: The Davis, Y, and DASH test results showed a significant difference
in upper extremity function between subjects with and those without thoracic
hyper-kyphosis (P<0.05), with the abnormal thoracic hyper-kyphosis group
showing poorer function than the normal group. The results also demonstrated
a significant relationship between the kyphosis angle and the Davis, Y, and
DASH tests (P<0.05).
Conclusion: Overall, kyphosis abnormality was found to lead to weak upper
extremity function, and an inverse relationship was observed between the
kyphosis angle and the Davis test and Y balance test. Moreover, a direct
relationship was found between the kyphosis angle and DASH test.


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