Document Type : Systematic Reviews


1 Kerman Neuroscience Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmachology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran

2 1- Bone and Joint Diseases Research Center, department of physical medicine and rehabilitation, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. 2- Shiraz Geriatric Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.


Dysphagia is a difficulty transferring liquid/food from the mouth to the stomach. It has life-threatening complications which can be reduced by thickening agents. There are various thickeners such as gelatin and xanthan. Each of these have their own characteristics. As Gelatin is melt in mouth, it is not an ideal agent for patients with dysphagia. However, xanthan gum has significant advantages in most important aspects of clinical applications like pH and temperature compatibility, consistency, appearance, odor, required concentrations of adequate liquid thickening, and resistance to amylase.  Therefore, despite some issues like the interaction with some oral drugs, generally Xanthan gum is the best choice to use for improving the swallowing ability of patients.
Hence, the aim of this narrative review is to report the main characteristics of xanthan gum to make researchers and practitioners familiar with it and consider it in their works.


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