Document Type : Original Articles


1 Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University of Tehran, Iran

2 Griffith College and Griffith Institute for Educational Research, Griffith University Australia


Background: This study highlights the effect of nonlinear and linear teaching methods and inclusive education on the self-esteem and motor proficiency of ordinary and overactive children.
Methods: This quasi-experimental research involved two groups of girls who had a 9-week intervention. One group consisting of 14 ordinary children (M age= 6.53, SD age= 0.49) with one overactive and obese child (age =6 years, height=115 cm and weight =27 kg) were trained using nonlinear pedagogy. The other group comprising of 14 ordinary children (Mage= 6.58, SD age= 0.52) and one overactive obese child (age =6 years, height=117 cm and weight =28 kg) were trained using a linear method.  Quantitative and qualitative instruments were used to collect data.
Results: The qualitative results showed control of violence and pleasure of the game, as well as family, educational and social relationships, improved in the obese and overactive child who practiced with the nonlinear pedagogy. Quantitative results indicated that general, family, social and school self-esteem, and motor proficiency increased, but BMI decreased in both children with ADHD. The result of the ANCOVA test indicates that self-esteem (P= 0.000, F=27.88) and motor proficiency (P= 0.001, F=15.7) improved in the nonlinear pedagogy compared to the linear method.
Conclusion: Results emphasized the importance of applying nonlinear pedagogy for motor skills development and in inclusive education to enhance physical activity participation for children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Findings make a strong case for manipulating tasks and eliminating environmental constraints in inclusive settings to develop motor skills of all children.


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