Document Type : Original Articles


1 Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran

2 PhD student of Occupational Therapy, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Rehabilitation School


Background:  Sensory processing is an important factor in development and affects the function of the senses in daily living activities. Hearing impairment may lead to some difficulties in sensory processing in children with hearing impairment.
Objectives:  In this cross-sectional study, the sensory processing of children with hearing impairment and that of their normal hearing peers who were between 3 to 6 years old were compared.
Methods: The study population consisted of 60 normal-hearing and hearing-impaired children with hearing aids in Shiraz who were between 3 and 6 years of age. Dunn’s Short Sensory Profile was utilized in both groups. The results were statistically analyzed by SPSS 21, and a p-level of < 0.05 was considered significant.
Results: Independent t-test results showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in total sensory processing (p -value = 0.097), touch sensitivity (p -value = 0.043), olfactory and taste sensitivity (p -value = 0.259), movement sensitivity (p -value = 0.079), sensory seeking (p -value = 0.229), hearing processing (p-value = 0.390), low energy and weakness (p-value = 0.916), or hearing and vision sensitivity (p -value = 0.429). The total mean score was 15.28 ± 4.8 for children with hearing aids and 15.28 ± 4.6 for normal-hearing children.
Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the impact of hearing impairment on sensory processing is unperceivable and needs to be addressed through more research However, it does seem that hearing impairment may affect one area of sensory processing.


1.Schell BA, Gillen G, Scaffa M, Cohn ES. Willard and Spackman's occupational therapy: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013.
2. Suarez MA. Sensory processing in children with autism spectrum disorders and impact on functioning. Pediatric Clinics. 2012;59(1):203-14.
3. Levitt M. Sensory Processing Patterns and Emotion Regulation in Children Presenting with Externalizing Behaviors. 2019.
4. Bharadwaj SV, Daniel LL, Matzke PLJAJoOT. Sensory-processing disorder in children with cochlear implants. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2009;63(2):208-13.
5. Kranowitz CS. The out-of-sync child: Recognizing and coping with sensory processing disorder: Penguin; 2005.
6. Lane SJ, Mailloux Z, Schoen S, Bundy A, May-Benson TA, Parham LD, et al. Neural Foundations of Ayres Sensory Integration®. Brain sciences. 2019;9(7):153.
7. Butera C, Ring P, Sideris J, Jayashankar A, Kilroy E, Harrison L, Cermak S, Aziz‐Zadeh L. Impact of Sensory Processing on School Performance Outcomes in High Functioning Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Mind, Brain, and Education. 2020 Aug;14(3):243-54.
8. Case-Smith J, O'Brien JC. Occupational therapy for children-E-Book: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2013.
9. Tavassoli T, Miller LJ, Schoen SA, Brout JJ, Sullivan J, Baron-Cohen SJDcn. Sensory reactivity, empathizing and systemizing in autism spectrum conditions and sensory processing disorder. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2018;29:72-7.
10. Dondé C, Avissar M, Weber MM, Javitt DCJEP. A century of sensory processing dysfunction in schizophrenia. European Psychiatry. 2019;59:77-9.
11.Little LM, Dean E, Tomchek S, Dunn W. Sensory processing patterns in autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and typical development. Phys Occup Ther Pediatr. 2018;38(3):243-54.
12. Brey RH, Facer GW, Trine MB, Lynn SG, Peterson AM, Suman VJJTAjoo. Vestibular effects associated with implantation of a multiple channel cochlear prosthesis. The American Journal of Otology. 1995;16(4):424-30.
13.  Jerome A, Kannan L, Lakhani H, Palekar TJJIJPSHC. Prevalence of vestibular dysfunction in hearing impaired children. Int J Pharm Sci Health Car, 2013;3(2):1-6.
14.  Bharadwaj SV, Matzke PL, Daniel LL. Multisensory processing in children with cochlear implants. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76(6):890-5.
15. Hofman M, Boer G, Holtmaat A, Van Someren E, Verhaagen J, Swaab DJPitabFgtn. Human brain plasticity: evidence from sensory deprivation and altered language experience. Progress in brain research. 2002:177.
16.  Neville HJ, Lawson DJBr. Attention to central and peripheral visual space in a movement detection task: an event-related potential and behavioral study. II. Congenitally deaf adults. Brain research. 1987;405(2):268-83.
17.Schorr EA, Fox NA, van Wassenhove V, Knudsen EIJPotNAoS. Auditory-visual fusion in speech perception in children with cochlear implants. fusion in speech perception in children with cochlear implants. 2005;102(51):18748-50.
18. Erden Z, Otman S, Tunay VBJIjopo. Is visual perception of hearing-impaired children different from healthy children? International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology. 2004;68(3):281-5.
19.Coulson-Thaker K. Exploring Sensory Processing among Hearing Impaired and Culturally Deaf Children. [dissertation] Hertfordshire university; 2020.
20. Moore DR, Cowan JA, Riley A, Edmondson-Jones AM, Ferguson MA. Development of auditory processing in 6-to 11-yr-old children. Ear and hearing. 2011;32(3):269-85.
21. Krizman J, Tierney A, Fitzroy AB, Skoe E, Amar J, Kraus N. Continued maturation of auditory brainstem function during adolescence: A longitudinal approach. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2015;126(12):2348-55.
22. Case-Smith J, O'Brien JC. Occupational therapy for children and adolescents-e-book: Elsevier Health Sciences; 2014.
23.  Ben-Sasson A, Carter AS, Briggs-Gowan MJ. Sensory over-responsivity in elementary school: prevalence and social-emotional correlates. Journal of abnormal child psychology. 2009;37(5):705-16.
24. Ghazali m, Darvish g. Autism with emphasis on the role of sensory information processing in evaluation and treatment. 2009.
25.  Schoen S, Miller L, Brett-Green B, Nielsen D. Physiological and behavioral differences in sensory processing: a comparison of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Sensory Modulation Disorder. Front Integr Neurosci. 2009;3(29).
26.  Darvish g, Mehdi k. Autism with emphasizes on the role of sensory information processing in assessment and treatment. Hayyan. 2007:65-74.
27.Ghanbari S, Rezaei A. The Relationship Between Sensory-Processing Disorders and Sleep Disturbances in School-Aged Autistic Children in Shiraz, 2015. Jundishapur J Chronic Dis Care. 2016;5(2):e32337.
28. Ghanbari S, Valipour M, Heydari F, Pourzamani Z, Jamali AR, Nemat Allahi S. Correlation between Sensory Processing Status and the Participation of Normal and Autistic (Normal Intelligence) School Children in Daily Living Activities. The Scientific Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2018;7(1):71-6.
29.Koester AC, Mailloux Z, Coleman GG, Mori AB, Paul SM, Blanche E, et al. Sensory integration functions of children with cochlear implants. American Journal of Occupational Therapy. 2014;68(5):562-9.
30. Rhoades EA, Chisholm THJVR. Global Language Progress with an Auditory-Verbal Approach for Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. Volta Review. 2000;102(1):5-24.
31.Alkhamra RA, Abu-Dahab SMN. Sensory processing disorders in children with hearing impairment: Implications for multidisciplinary approach and early intervention. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2020;136:110154.
32.Levänen S, Hamdorf DJNl. Feeling vibrations: enhanced tactile sensitivity in congenitally deaf humans. Neuroscience letters. 2001;301(1):75-7.