Document Type : Original Articles


1 Professor Department of Health and Sports Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sports Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, University of Tehran. Tehran. Iran

3 Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

4 Master student of sport injury and corrective exercise, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, University of Tehran. Tehran. Iran


Background: Forward head posture is a major postural deformity in the head and neck area. Considering the importance and secondary consequences of this deformity, current study aims at investigating this deformity among boys and girls of different educational levels of Tehran universities.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive and field study (causal-comparative). A total of 1017 students, 511 girls (age: 23.74±3.91, height: 162.42±7.14, weight: 57.33±8.87) and 506 boys (age: 23.82±3.57, height: 174.70±7.97, weight: 69.19±12.18) were selected. Their forward head angle was measured 3 times by a specific goniometer and the subjects' final angle was considered as the average of three measurements. Data were analyzed using SPSS V.22 software and the two-way ANOVA, Tukey and one-way ANOVA tests.
Results: The results of one-way ANOVA analysis showed a significant difference in the head angle of the students at different educational levels (p <0.05). The results of Tukey post-hoc test showed a significant difference between post-graduate and undergraduate female students and doctoral female students (p <0.05). Also, there was a significant difference only between male undergraduate students and male doctoral students (p <0.05). The results of two-way ANOVA showed that gender and educational level factors had a significant effect on head angle (p <0.05), but neither factor had an interaction effect on head angle (P>0.05).
Conclusion: According to the results of this study, educational level and gender were the major factors in the development of forward head posture, so considering these two variables could be effective in prevention, control, and correction of related deformities.
Background: Forward head posture is a major postural deformity in the head and neck area. Considering the importance and secondary consequences of this deformity, current study aims at investigating this deformity among boys and girls of different educational levels of Tehran universities.


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