Document Type: Original Articles


1 Department of Physical Education, Gonbad Kavoos Branch, Islamic Azad University, Gonbad Kavoos, Iran.

2 Lecturer in Sport and Exercise Science, University of Central Lancashire, Cyprus


Background: the aim of this research was to investigate the effects of a period of selected physical activity on improving the fundamental skills of manipulation and locomotion in children with neuropsychological learning disabilities.
Methodsː the present research was semi-experimental. A total of 30 students with neuropsychological learning disorders with an average age of 7.76 participated in this research selected by available sampling. The instrument utilized in this research was the test of Gross Motor Skills. After performing the pretest of locomotor and manipulative skills, the participants were classified homogeneously into experimental and control groups. The experimental group, in addition to taking part in their routine classes at school, also participated in twelve 45-min sessions (three sessions per week) in the Spark program. The control group took part in only their own routine classes. By the end of the 12th session, a posttest was performed. The data were analyzed through covariance analysis in SPSS 22. The significance level was considered as p<0.05.
Results: the results showed that in the variables of locomotion (running (P<0.001), hopping (p=0.001) and long jump (p=0.001), as well as manipulative variables (kicking (P<0.001), overhead throwing (P<0.001) and catching (p=0.0001) there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Based on the main differences, the experimental group displayed better performance compared to the control group.
Conclusion: overall, it can be stated that a 12-session course based on a selected physical activity can result in improved locomotor and manipulative skills in children with neuropsychological learning disorders.