Document Type: Original Articles


Department of Psychology and Education, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.


Background: Today, lifestyle-associated health problems are increasing, while healthy behaviors could reduce their consequences, e.g. mortality. The physical activity enjoyment (PAE) is one of the most important factors which might lead to enhanced physical activity, as a protective factor of chronic diseases and mental disorders. The main purpose of this research was to study the effectiveness of educating mindfulness, self-compassion and self-regulation on the PAE of obese and overweighed students. Methods: This is a semi-experimental pre-post study on the effects of educational interventions on the PAE among the high-school students. After informing all participants about the goals of the research, through a list generated based on block randomization methods with size 4 in each block, they were divided randomly into 4 training groups (17 students per group). To assess the PAE, the valid and reliable version of 18-items questionnaire made by Kendzerski and Decarlo (1991) was employed.Results: All participants were in grade 9 aging 14-16 years. Their BMI had a mean of 32.10±2.35 (ranged 26.22 to 37.28). All of the experimental groups had significantly higher levels of PAE than the control group.Conclusion: The educational methods had a significant effect on increasing PAE. Mindfulness, self-compassion, and self-regulation might be used as educational methods to increase the PAE.


  1. Van Dam RM, Li T, Spiegelman D, Franco OH, Hu FB. Combined impact of lifestyle factors on mortality: prospective cohort study in US women. Bmj. 2008;337:a1440.
  2. Semenchuk BN, Strachan SM, Fortier M. Self-Compassion and the Self-Regulation of Exercise: Reactions to Recalled Exercise Setbacks. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2018;40(1):31-9.
  3. Murrock CJ, Bekhet A, Zauszniewski JA. Psychometric evaluation of the physical activity enjoyment scale in adults with functional limitations. Issues in mental health nursing. 2016;37(3):164-71.
  4. Reiner M, Niermann C, Jekauc D, Woll A. Long-term health benefits of physical activity–a systematic review of longitudinal studies. BMC public health. 2013;13(1):813.
  5. Golpour R, Abolghasemi A, Ahadi B, Narimani M. The effectiveness of cognitive self-compassion training and emotion-focused therapy on quality of life with depression disorder. Journal of clinical psychology. 2014;6:53-64.
  6. Hennecke M, Converse BA. Next week, next month, next year: How perceived temporal boundaries affect initiation expectations. Social Psychological and Personality Science. 2017;8(8):918-26.
  7. Adler JM, Hershfield HE. Mixed emotional experience is associated with and precedes improvements in psychological well-being. PloS one. 2012;7(4):e35633.
  8. Akın U, Akın A. Examining the predictive role of self-compassion on sense of community in Turkish adolescents. Social Indicators Research. 2015;123(1):29-38.
  9. Bartels DM, Urminsky O. On intertemporal selfishness: How the perceived instability of identity underlies impatient consumption. Journal of Consumer Research. 2011;38(1):182-98.
  10. Zarar M, Zahid, A, and Abolqasemi, AS. The Comparison of the Effectiveness of Self-Regulatory Learning and Problem-Solving Learning Strategies on Academic Motivation of Students. School Psychology, 2014, 4 (1) 155-139.
  11. Bartels DM, Urminsky O. To know and to care: How awareness and valuation of the future jointly shape consumer spending. Journal of Consumer Research. 2015;41(6):1469-85.
  12. Rahmani A, Sayehmiri K, Asadollahi K, Sarokhani D, Islami F, Sarokhani M. Investigation of the Prevalence of Obesity in Iran: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study. Acta Med Iran. 2015;53(10):596-607.
  13. Budd EL, McQueen A, Eyler AA, Haire-Joshu D, Auslander WF, Brownson RC. The role of physical activity enjoyment in the pathways from the social and physical environments to physical activity of early adolescent girls. Preventive medicine. 2018;111:6-13.
  14. Cox AE, Ullrich-French S, Cole AN, D'Hondt-Taylor M. The role of state mindfulness during yoga in predicting self-objectification and reasons for exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2016;22:321-7.
  15. Curran T, Sayers R, Percy-Smith B. Disabled Children’s Childhood Studies and Leadership as Experts by Experience’Leadership: Learning Activism in Health and Social Care Education. The Palgrave Handbook of Disabled Children’s Childhood Studies: Springer; 2018. p. 501-21.
  16. Dariotis JK, Mirabal-Beltran R, Cluxton-Keller F, Gould LF, Greenberg MT, Mendelson T. A qualitative evaluation of student learning and skills use in a school-based mindfulness and yoga program. Mindfulness. 2016;7(1):76-89.
  17. Whillans AV, Weidman AC, Dunn EW. Valuing time over money is associated with greater happiness. Social Psychological and Personality Science. 2016;7(3):213-22.
  18. Guerra PH, da Silveira JAC, Salvador EP. Physical activity and nutrition education at the school environment aimed at preventing childhood obesity: evidence from systematic reviews. Jornal de pediatria. 2016;92(1):15-23.
  19. Gutman LM, Vorhaus J. The impact of pupil behaviour and wellbeing on educational outcomes. 2012.
  20. Harward D, Why should higher education care about well-being? Bringing Theory to Practice Newsletter. students. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 2014, 79: 491-499.
  21. Wen M, Fan JX, Kowaleski-Jones L, Wan N. Rural–urban disparities in obesity prevalence among working age adults in the United States: Exploring the mechanisms. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2018;32(2):400-8.
  22. Mogilner C, Norton MI. Time, money, and happiness. Current Opinion in Psychology. 2016;10:12-6.
  23. Hershfield HE. Future self‐continuity: How conceptions of the future self transform intertemporal choice. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2011;1235(1):30-43.
  24. Heymsfield SB, Wadden TA. Mechanisms, pathophysiology, and management of obesity. New England Journal of Medicine. 2017;376(3):254-66.
  25. Heintzelman SJ, King LA. Life is pretty meaningful. American Psychologist. 2014;69(6):561.
  26. Baumeister RF, Vohs KD, Aaker JL, Garbinsky EN. Some key differences between a happy life and a meaningful life. The Journal of Positive Psychology. 2013;8(6):505-16.
  27. Moore RC, Martin AvS, Kaup AR, Thompson WK, Peters ME, Jeste DV, et al. From suffering to caring: a model of differences among older adults in levels of compassion. International journal of geriatric psychiatry. 2015;30(2):185-91.