Document Type : Original Articles


1 University of social welfare and rehabilitation sciences

2 Shahid Bahonar university of Kerman

3 Payam Noor University of Tehran


Background: Pronoun error is one of the most common errors in many speech and language disorders. Therefore, knowing about the development procedure of dependent possessive pronouns (as a subgroup of pronouns), leads to build an accurate profile for evaluation and treatment of many disorders. The goal of the present study was to examine the development of dependent possessive pronouns in 2.5-4 years old Persian-speaking children.Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive-analytic study, 177 typically normal Persian speaking children in age range of 2.5-4 years old (94 girls and 83 boys) who were selected by stratified sampling method from 10 kindergartens of Kerman were examined. There were 3 age groups (2.5-3, 3-3.5 and 3.5-4 years old). The instrument used in this study was a researcher-made task consistent of 18 questions about some parts of body to examine the development of dependent possessive pronouns. For descriptive report central tendencies and indices of dispersion were used and for statistics relations Spearman’s correlation test, Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test and Cochran’s test were used.Results: The order of correct use of dependent possessive pronouns was from singular to plural and the order of person was 3rd person, 1st person and then 2nd person. There was a correlation between age and correct use of dependent possessive pronouns (P<0.05). The performance of girls and boys were similar (P>0.05), but children’s performance in 3 age groups were different (P<0.05) and correct use of 6 types of dependent possessive pronouns were significantly different (P<0.05).Conclusion: The correct use of dependent possessive pronouns increased with age, and by the age of 4, the children mastered in more than 90% of dependent possessive pronouns. 


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