Document Type : Original Articles


1 Faculty of literature and human sciences, Department of physical education, University of Yasouj, Yasouj, Iran

2 Department of Sport Injury and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Sport Science, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran

3 Orthotics and Prosthetics Department, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran


Background: Throwing movements are repetitive movement in overhead athletes that causes soft tissues adaptation and ultimately lead to shoulder joint damage. The purpose of this study was to determine the torque of internal and external rotation of joint shoulder overhead athletes with and without impingement syndrome in the throwing ball position.
methods: This study was Cross-sectional and 63 male overhead athletes selected (30 participants without shoulder impingement syndrome and 33 participants with shoulder impingement syndrome. ( simulation maximum functional torque evaluated during throwing a ball to the net during sitting position. A 6-camera Vicon Motion Capture system incorporated the markers on the upper limb and trunk. To evaluate the maximum torque, a kinematic model of the upper limb was used in OpenSim software, with inverse dynamic used to obtain maximum torque.
Results: The results showed that the internal and external rotation and elevation torque were significantly different in the athletes with shoulder impingement syndrome in comparison to those without impingement syndrome (P <0/001, p= 0.012 and P <0/001, respectively), while depression torque wasn’t a significant difference (p=0/283) in two groups.
Conclusion: These findings suggest that there may be adaptations to shoulder strength and torque in response to throwing a ball that ultimately causes injury to the shoulder.