Document Type : Original Articles
1 Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran .
2 Department of Occupational Therapy, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.
3 Department of Public Health, Maragheh University of Medical Sciences, Maragheh, Iran
Background: Addiction destroys lifestyles and affects individuals, family,and society. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between resilience, locus of control, and emotional intelligence in opium addicts.
Recognizing the weaknesses of this group helps them to recover and can provide preventive strategies for society.
Methods: A total of 40 male opium addicts were selected by convenience sampling from Ibn-e-Sina Center in Shiraz. Rotter, Shrink, Connor-Davidson,and demographic questionnaires were used in this cross-sectional study, and Pearson’s test was used to obtain the correlation coefficient.
Results: Less resilient people reported more relapses after quitting (r=-0.424,P=0.006). People with higher social awareness used psychological therapies to liberate themselves from addiction (r=0.337, P=0.033). Longer addiction was reported among people who consumed opium more frequently during the day (r=0.433, P=0.005). Greater frequency of daily consumption and more years of consumption had a positive relationship with increasing the number of quits and relapses (r=0.323, P=0.042; r=0.362, P=0.022).
Conclusion: Addiction treatment centers should evaluate and improve the levels of resilience, emotional intelligence, and type of locus of control in addicts. Most of the participants started their addiction out of curiosity between the ages of 20 and 25 years. The media and policymakers are recommended to play a vital role in raising social awareness and clarifying the devastating consequences of opium addiction. Most of the participants were unemployed and needed money for more treatments. Therefore, it is advisable that rehabilitation centers use occupational therapists for pre-vocational and vocational rehabilitation programs in the treatment process.
2. Martin L, Bliven M, Boisvert R. Occupational Performance, Self-Esteem, and Quality of Life in Substance Addictions Recovery.OTJR 2008; 28(2):1-8.
3. Amin-Esmaeili M, Rahimi-Movaghar A, Sharifi V, Hajebi A,Radgoodarzi R, Mojtabai R, et al. Epidemiology of illicit drug use disorders in Iran: prevalence, correlates, comorbidity and service utilization results from the Iranian Mental Health Survey. Addiction 2016; 111(10):1836-47.
4. Rahimi-Movaghar A, Amin-Esmaeili M, Hefazi M, YousefiNooraie R. Pharmacological therapies for maintenance treatments of opium dependence. Cochrane Database Sys Rev 2013;(1): 7775.
5. Moazen B, Shokoohi M, Noori A, Rahimzadeh S, Saeedi Moghaddam S, Rezaei F, et al. Burden of drug and alcohol use disorders in Iran: findings from the Global Burden of Disease
Study 2010. Arch Iran Med 2015; 18(8):480-5.6. Naghavi M, Shahraz S, Sepanlou SG, Dicker D, Naghavi P,Pourmalek F, et al. Health transition in Iran toward chronic diseases based on results of Global Burden of Disease 2010. Arch Iran Med 2014; 17(5):321-35.
7. Stoffel VC, Moyers PA. An evidence-based and occupational perspective of interventions for persons with substance-use disorders. Amer J Occup Therapy 2004; 58(5):570-86.
8. Stoffel VC. Occupational therapists’ roles in treating substance abuse. Psychiatric Services. 1994;45(1):21-2.
9. Rojo-Mota G, Pedrero-Pé rez EJ, Huertas-Hoyas E. Systematic review of occupational therapy in the treatment of addiction:Models, practice, and qualitative and quantitative research. Amer J Occup Therapy 2017; 71(5):1-11.
10. Davis A, Marlow A. Occupational Therapy: Implications for substance abuse recovery and the criminal justice system. Pacific University 2014. 23.
11. Martins A, Ramalho N, Morin E. A comprehensive meta-analysis of the relationship between emotional intelligence and health.Personality and individual differences 2010;49(6):554-64.
12. Sinha R. How does stress increase risk of drug abuse and relapse?Psychopharmacology 2001; 158(4):343-59.
13. Herman M. Psychotherapy with substance abusers: Integration of psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral approaches. American journal of psychotherapy 2000; 54(4):574-9.
14. Salovey P, Mayer JD, Caruso D, Yoo SH. The positive psychology of emotional intelligence. Handbook of positive psychology 2009; 2: 159-171.
15. Salovey P, Mayer JD, Goldman SL, Turvey C, Palfai TP. Emotional Attention, clarity, and repair: exploring emotional intelligence using the trait meta-mood scale. 1995 In J. W. Pennebaker (Ed.),Emotion, Disclosure and Health. Washington DC: APA 125-154.
16. Samouei R, Ebrahimi A, Moosavi G, Hasanzade A, Rafiei S.Pattern of contrast with stress in selfintroduction addictive in Esfahan addict center. IJPCP 1999; 6(2-3):63-9.
17. Kelley TM, Stack SA. Thought recognition, locus of control, and adolescent well-being. Adolescence 2000; 35(139):531.
18. Quatman T, Watson CM. Gender differences in adolescent selfesteem:An exploration of domains. Journal of genetic psychology 2001; 162(1):93-117.
19. Kiani S. The relationship between emotional intelligence,resiliency and social compatibility to explain the mental health model in the students of Shahed University [PhD Dissertation].Tehran: Allameh Tabatabai Univ.; 2010.
20. Edri M, Nasiri J, Shekofte M. Investigating the relation of emotional intelligence, cigarette and psychiatric medicine among students of Jiroft Universities. JRUMS. 2014;13(5):457-70. [InPersian]
21. Khaledian M. The effectiveness of life skills training on mental health and self-esteem of individuals addicted to drugs. Journal of Social Psychology 2017; 29(2):1-15. [in Persian]
22. Monsef Ali, Abasi Homayoon, Eydi Hossein. Investigating correlation between emotional intelligence in faculty members with efficacy of Tehran public sport schools. Journal of Sport Management and motor behavior 1392;9(18):169-181.
23. Pazhouhan A. The relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational stress among nurses of Alzahra Hospital in Isfahan. Journal of Hospital 2016;15(1):59-68.
24. Rotter, Julian B. Generalized Expectancies for Internal versus External Control of Reinforcement. Psychological Monographs 1966; 80 (1): 1–28.
25. Weiner B. Principles for a Theory of Student Motivation and Their Application within an Attributional Framework. Journal of Research on Motivation in Education 1984; 1(1): 15–38.
26. Yaryari F, Moradi AR, Yahyazadeh S. The Relationship between emotional intelligence and Locus of control with psychological well–being among students at Mazandaran University. Quarterly Journal of Psychological Studies 2007; 3(1):21-40. [in Persian]
27. Bigdeli I, Najafy M, Rostami M. The Relation of Attachment Styles, Emotion Regulation, and Resilience to Well-being among Students of Medical Sciences. Iranian Journal of Medical Education 2013; 13(9): 721-729. [In Persian]
28. Compell-Sills L, Stein MB. Psychometric analysis and refinement of the Conner-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC): Validation of a 10 item measure of resilience. J Trauma Stress 2007; 20(6):1019- 1028.
29. Maghni Kh, Moosavi AM. Resiliency and locus of control in anonymous addicts under metadone maintanance. Contemporary Psychology 2015; 10:1516-1517.
30. Connor KM, Davidson JR. Development of a new resilience scale:the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Depression and Anxiety 2003; 18(2): 76–82.
31. Khajedaluee M, Dadgar Moghadam M. Methods and patterns of drug abuse among young addict women. Journal of Research and Health 2013;3(4):527-35.
32. Akbari H, Roshanpajouh M, Nourijelyani K, Mansournia MA,Rahimi-Movaghar A, Yazdani K. Profile of drug users in the residential treatment centers of Tehran, Iran. Health Promot Perspect 2019; 9(3):248-254.
33. Karrari P, Mehrpour O, Afshari R, Keyler D. Pattern of illicit drug use in patients referred to addiction treatment centres in Birjand,Eastern Iran. J Pak Med Assoc 2013; 63(6):711- 6.
34. Goodarzi F, Karrari P, Eizadi-Mood N, Mehrpour O, Misagh R,Setude S, et al. Epidemiology of drug abuse (chronic intoxication)and its related factors in a MMT Clinic in Shiraz, Southern Iran.Iran J Toxicol 2011; 4(4):377-80.
35. Sharifi V, Amin-Esmaeili M, Hajebi A, Motevalian A, Radgoodarzi R, Hefazi M, et al. Twelve-month prevalence and correlates of psychiatric disorders in Iran: the Iranian Mental Health Survey 2011. Arch Iran Med 2015; 18(2):76- 84.