Background. Considering the high prevalence of flat feet and cavus feet abnormalities among people and the adverse effects resulting from these complications on both the balance and function, a systematic review on the effect of various exercise programs on postural control and dynamic balance of these individuals seems to be essential. Thus, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis study is to examine the effect of exercise training programs on postural control and dynamic balance among individuals with flat feet and cavus feet.
Method. The papers were identified through searching across eight databases of PubMed, SCOPUS, LILACS, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Web of Science, PEDro, and Google Scholar. The search period ranged from the beginning of available date up to November 2021. In addition, manual search and complete investigation of the references of papers were also performed.
Results. 13 studies were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis. The results of meta-analysis indicated that the exercise programs had a significant effect on posture control (p=0.001) and dynamic balance (p=0.001) among individuals with flat feet and cavus feet. The effect size of Hedges's g of the exercise programs on postural control was 1.81 with confidence interval 95% (1.40-2.22). The effect size of Hedges's g of the exercise programs on the dynamic balance was 1.32 with 95% confidence interval (0.98-1.67).
Conclusion. In the present systematic review, it was found that exercise programs had a significant effect on postural control and dynamic balance of individuals with flat feet and cavus feet abnormalities. The results of studies revealed that to better correct abnormalities and thus improve the postural control and dynamic balance further, the period of exercise program should be increased. Also, exercise programs should also focus on greater involvement of neuromuscular systems and direct effect on the central nervous system so that greater effect would be observed on improving postural control and dynamic balance.