Development of a Computerized Task for measuring Time Perception

Hoora Motie, Mahmood Heidari, Fatemeh bagherian, Fariba Zarani


Background: Time perception is considered as an important subject in
cognitive psychology, which is essential for our understanding regarding brain
mechanisms underlying human cognition and disabilities. Deficits in time
perception have been found in people with both attention-deficit/hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD), dyslexia, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease. The present
study aimed at developing and evaluating the Time Perception Software with
a sample including 152 Iranian students.
Methods: The computerized time perception task was designed based on time
estimation, reproduction, production and time comparison method. In order to
verify the reliability of the task, 30 students which were participated in the test
sample repeated the test after one month. The content and construct validity
were used in order to examine the validity of the task. The construct validity
of the time perception task was verified by analyzing the confirmatory factor
analysis using the Amos 24 software.
Results: In the modified model, the comparison factor was eliminated
(CFI=0.965). The highest correlation was observed in the time estimation of
11 seconds with a correlation coefficient which was equal to 0.935 (P=0.001),
while the lowest correlation coefficient was observed in the time production of
17 seconds with the correlation coefficient which was equal to 0.679 (P=0.001).
The internal consistency of the task indicated that the time perception task
had a near-optimal validity and its reliability was at the optimal level with the
Cronbach’s alpha which was equal to 0.67.
Conclusion: In order to conclude, The Time Perception Software appeared to
be reliable and valid for assessing and measuring time perception in the Iranian
students. This software can be used in future research investigations.


Time estimation test, Time reproduction, Time production, Time comparison

Full Text:



Jisha P, Thomas I. Role of personal and methodological factors in time perception. Psychological Studies. 2015;60(1):84-90.

Ahn H-K, Liu MW, Soman D. Memory markers: How consumers recall the duration of experiences. Journal of Consumer Psychology. 2009;19(3):508-16.

Block R, Zakay D. Prospective and retrospective duration judgments: An executive-control process. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis. 2004;64:319-28.

Vohs KD, Schmeichel BJ. Self-regulation and extended now: Controlling the self alters the subjective experience of time. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 2003;85(2):217.

Droit-Volet S, Bigand E, Ramos D, Bueno JLO. Time flies with music whatever its emotional valence. Acta Psychologica. 2010;135(2):226-32.

Meck WH. Selective adjustment of the speed of internal clock and memory processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Behavior Processes. 1983;9(2):171.

Mioni G, Stablum F, Prunetti E, Grondin S. Time perception in anxious and depressed patients: A comparison between time reproduction and time production tasks. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016;196:154-63.

Drew MR, Fairhurst S, Malapani C, Horvitz JC, Balsam PD. Effects of dopamine antagonists on the timing of two intervals. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 2003;75(1):9-15.

Allman MJ, Teki S, Griffiths TD, Meck WH. Properties of the internal clock: First-and second-order principles of subjective time. Annual Review of Psychology. 2014;65:743-71.

Shirai N, Kanazawa S, Yamaguchi MK. Asymmetry for the perception of expansion/contraction in infancy. Infant Behavior and Development. 2004;27(3):315-22.

Gil S, Droit-Volet S. How do emotional facial expressions influence our perception of time? Attention, Representation, and Human Performance: Integration of Cognition, Emotion and Motivation. 2011:61-74.

Grondin S. Methods for studying psychological time. Psychology of time. 2008:51-74.

Brown SW, Stubbs DA. The psychophysics of retrospective and prospective timing. Perception. 1988;17(3):297-310.

Eisler AD, Eisler H, Montgomery H. A quantitative model for retrospective subjective duration. NeuroQuantology. 2004;2(4).

Grondin S. Timing and time perception: a review of recent behavioral and neuroscience findings and theoretical directions. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 2010;72(3):561-82.

Matthews WJ, Meck WH. Time perception: the bad news and the good. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science. 2014;5(4):429-46.

Rattat A-C, Droit-Volet S. What is the best and easiest method of preventing counting in different temporal tasks? Behavior Research Methods. 2012;44(1):67-80.

Harrington DL, Castillo GN, Greenberg PA, Song DD, Lessig S, Lee RR, Rao SM. Neurobehavioral mechanisms of temporal processing deficits in Parkinson's disease. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 25;6(2):e17461.

Barkley RA. Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychological bulletin. 1997 Jan;121(1):65.

Barratt ES, Patton J, Greger Olsson N, Zuker G. Impulsivity and paced tapping. Journal of Motor Behavior. 1981 Dec 1;13(4):286-300.

Rubia K, Noorloos J, Smith A, Gunning B, Sergeant J. Motor timing deficits in community and clinical boys with hyperactive behavior: the effect of methylphenidate on motor timing. Journal of abnormal child psychology. 2003 Jun 1;31(3):301-13.

Gooch D, Snowling M, Hulme C. Time perception, phonological skills and executive function in children with dyslexia and/or ADHD symptoms. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2011 Feb;52(2):195-203.

Smith A, Taylor E, Warner Rogers J, Newman S, Rubia K. Evidence for a pure time perception deficit in children with ADHD. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 2002;43(4):529-42.

Tobin S, Bisson N, Grondin S. An ecological approach to prospective and retrospective timing of long durations: a study involving gamers. PLoS ONE. 2010;5(2):e9271.

O’Regan L, Spapé MM, Serrien DJ. Motor timing and covariation with time perception: investigating the role of handedness. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2017;11:147.

Simms LJ, Goldberg LR, Roberts JE, Watson D, Welte J, Rotterman JH. Computerized Adaptive Assessment of Personality Disorder: Introducing the CAT–PD Project. Journal of Personality Assessment. 2011;93(4):380-9.

Burke MJ, Normand J. Computerized psychological testing: Overview and critique. Professional Psychology: research and practice,. 1987;18(1):42.

Barkley RA, Edwards G, Laneri M, Fletcher K, Metevia L. Executive functioning, temporal discounting, and sense of time in adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 2001;29(6):541-56.

Ekhtiari H, Jannati A, Parhizgar E, Behzadi A, Mokri A. Time perception and the validation methods: a preliminary study for farsi-speaking proband. Advances in Cognitive Science. 2004;5:36-49.

Marx I, Höpcke C, Berger C, Wandschneider R, Herpertz SC. The impact of financial reward contingencies on cognitive function profiles in adult ADHD. PloS one. 2013;8(6):e67002.

Nazari MA, Mirloo MM, Rezaei M, Soltanlou M. Emotional stimuli facilitate time perception in children with attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of neuropsychology. 2018;12(2):165-75.

Toplak M, Rucklidge J, Hetherington R, John S, Tannock R. Time perception deficits in attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder and comorbid reading difficulties in child and adolescent samples. Journal of Child Psychology Psychiatry. 2003;44(6):888-903.

Toplak ME, Tannock R. Time perception: modality and duration effects in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of abnormal child psychology. 2005;33(5):639-54.

Yang B, Chan RC, Zou X, Jing J, Mai J, Li J. Time perception deficit in children with ADHD. Brain Research. 2007;1170:90-6.

Grondin S, Ouellet B, Roussel M-E. Benefits and limits of explicit counting for discriminating temporal intervals. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale. 2004;58(1):1.

Zakay D. Relative and absolute duration judgments under prospective and retrospective paradigms. Perception & Psychophysics. 1993;54(5):656-64.

Zakay D. " Relative and absolute duration judgments under prospective and retrospective paradigms.": Erratum. 1994.

Baudouin A, Vanneste S, Pouthas V, Isingrini M. Age-related changes in duration reproduction: Involvement of working memory processes. Brain and Cognition. 2006;62(1):17-23.

Siu NY, Lam HH, Le JJ, Przepiorka AM. Time perception and time perspective differences between adolescents and adults. Acta Psychologica. 2014;151:222-9.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

pISSN: 2345-6167        eISSN: 2345-6159