Effects of Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion on Amblyaudia

Shahnaz Alamdari, Yones Lotfi, Alireza Karimi Yazdi, Mohanna Javanbakht, Enayatollah Bakhshi


Background: Chronic otitis media with effusion (CME) primarily affects
children. Temporary auditory deprivation is a serious complication of this
disease and can result in auditory processing disorder, as demonstrated in past
studies. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of CME
duration on binaural processing and amblyaudia.
Methods: Ninety-four children were examined, including 48 children (29
girls=60%) with different CME durations (from 3 months to more than 9
months) and 46 children (34 girls=73%) with no history of CME or a duration
of less than 3 months CME. Persian versions of the dichotic digits and dichotic
rhyme tests were applied.
Results: Significant differences between the groups (P<0.001) in dichotic
digits difference (DDD) and dichotic rhyme difference (DRD) in free recall
conditions were identified. With longer durations of CME, the DDD and DRD
average scores were increased in the CME positive group, and the probability of
amblyaudia was also enhanced.
Conclusion: A history of CME and the long-term auditory deprivation resulting
from it in early childhood can increase the risk of amblyaudia.


Dichotic digit test, Dichotic rhyme test, Auditory processing disorder, Amblyaudia, Free recall attention

Full Text:



Bluestone, C.D. and J.O. Klein, Otitis media in infants and

children. 2007: PMPH-USA.

Bluestone, C.D., et al., 1. Definitions, Terminology, and

Classification of Otitis Media. Annals of Otology, Rhinology &

Laryngology, 2002. 111(3_suppl): p. 8-18.

Klausen, O., Lasting effects of otitis media with effusion on

language skills and listening performance. Acta oto-laryngologica,

120(543): p. 73-76.

Cranford, J.L., et al., Brief tone discrimination by children

with histories of early otitis media. JOURNAL-AMERICAN

ACADEMY OF AUDIOLOGY, 1997. 8: p. 137-141.

Lewis, N., Otitis media and linguistic incompetence. Arch

Otolaryngol, 1976. 102(7): p. 387-390.

Hersh, M. and M.A. Johnson, Assistive technology for visually

impaired and blind people. 2010: Springer Science & Business


Purves, D., et al., Neuroscience 2nd Edition. Sunderland (MA)

Sinauer Associates. 2001, Inc.

Lamminen, R.J. and D. Houlihan, A Brief Overview of

Amblyaudia. Health, 2015. 7(08): p. 927.

Zhuang, X., W. Sun, and M.A. Xu-Friedman, Changes in

properties of auditory nerve synapses following conductive

hearing loss. Journal of Neuroscience, 2017. 37(2): p. 323-332.

Whitton, J.P. and D.B. Polley, Evaluating the perceptual and

pathophysiological consequences of auditory deprivation in early

postnatal life: a comparison of basic and clinical studies. Journal

of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology, 2011. 12(5):

p. 535-547.

Holm, V.A. and L.H. Kunze, Effect of chronic otitis media on

language and speech development. Pediatrics, 1969. 43(5): p.


Borges, L.R., J.R. Paschoal, and M.F. Colella-Santos, (Central)

Auditory Processing: the impact of otitis media. Clinics, 2013.

(7): p. 954-959.

Shetty, H.N. and V. Koonoor, Sensory deprivation due to otitis

media episodes in early childhood and its effect at later age: A

psychoacoustic and speech perception measure. International

journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology, 2016. 90: p. 181-187.

Jafari, Z., S. Malayeri, and E. Bahramian, The effect of age

and history of recurrent otitis media on dichotic listening and

verbal memory in children. Annals of Otology, Rhinology &

Laryngology, 2016. 125(12): p. 1015-1024.

Moncrieff, D.W., Dichotic listening in children: age-related

changes in direction and magnitude of ear advantage. Brain and

cognition, 2011. 76(2): p. 316-322.

Hall, J.W., J.H. Grose, and H.C. Pillsbury, Long-term effects of

chronic otitis media on binaural hearing in children. Archives of

Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 1995. 121(8): p. 847-852.

Roberts, J.E., et al., Otitis media in early childhood and cognitive,

academic, and classroom performance of the school-aged child.

Pediatrics, 1989. 83(4): p. 477-485.

Kreisman, N.V., et al., Psychosocial status of children with

auditory processing disorder. Journal of the American Academy

of Audiology, 2012. 23(3): p. 222-233.

Moncrieff, D.W., et al. Prevalence and severity of auditory

processing deficits in adjudicated adolescents screened

with dichotic listening tests: Implications for diagnosis and

intervention. in Seminars in hearing. 2014. Thieme Medical


Mahdavi, M.E., et al., Persian randomized dichotic digits test:

Development and dichotic listening performance in young adults.

Auditory and Vestibular Research, 2017. 23(6): p. 99-113.

Ghanbari, N., et al., Developing and Evaluang Validity and

Reliability of Persian Version of “Dichoc Fused Rhymed Word

Test”. REHABILITATION, 2015. 16(3).

Moossavi, A., et al., Development and psychometric evaluation of

Persian version of fused dichotic rhymed word test for 6-11 yearold

Persian speaking normal children. Auditory and Vestibular

Research, 2016. 25(3): p. 159-165.

Moncrieff, D., et al., Diagnosis of amblyaudia in children referred

for auditory processing assessment. International journal of

audiology, 2016. 55(6): p. 333-345.

Xu, H., V.C. Kotak, and D.H. Sanes, Conductive hearing loss

disrupts synaptic and spike adaptation in developing auditory

cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 2007. 27(35): p. 9417-9426.

Popescu, M.V. and D.B. Polley, Monaural deprivation disrupts

development of binaural selectivity in auditory midbrain and

cortex. Neuron, 2010. 65(5): p. 718-731.

Polley, D.B., J.H. Thompson, and W. Guo, Brief hearing loss

disrupts binaural integration during two early critical periods

of auditory cortex development. Nature communications, 2013.

: p. 2547.

Moosavi, A., et al., Auditory lateralization ability in children

with (central) auditory processing disorder. Iranian Rehabilitation

Journal, 2014. 12(1): p. 31-37.

Moore, D.R., D.E. Hartley, and S.C. Hogan, Effects of otitis media

with effusion (OME) on central auditory function. International

journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology, 2003. 67: p. S63-S67.

Gur, R.C., et al., Age group and sex differences in performance

on a computerized neurocognitive battery in children age 8− 21.

Neuropsychology, 2012. 26(2): p. 251.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

pISSN: 2345-6167        eISSN: 2345-6159