Comparison of the immediate effects of modified and routine warm-ups on knee joint function and dynamic balance in athletes

Mohsen Razeghi, Elham Hamoule

Abstract


Background: Warm-up before a sport activity is the most common preventive measure to reduce the incidences and severity of injuries during sport activities. This study investigated the effects of modified warm-up on balance and knee function as compared to those of routine warm-up in athletes.

Methods: Twenty healthy athletes volunteered to participate in the study. At the beginning of the session, we evaluated the dynamic balance and the knee joint function variables by Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) and hop tests, and then the subjects did either modified or routine warm-up. Immediately after doing the warm-up, the dynamic balance and the knee joint function variables were assessed again. Each subject underwent both interventions in two sessions separated by at least 48 hours.

Results: Statistically significant improvements were measured for modified warm-up compared to routine warm-up in eight directions of SEBT and four hop tests. (A: p=0.0001, AL: p=0.005, L: p=0.002, PL: p=0.005, P: p=0.005, PM: p=0.0001, M: p=0.001, AM: p=0.001) (One-leg hop test for distance: p=0.007, triple hop test for distance: p=0.003, triple crossover hop for distance: p=0.004, and 6 meter timed hop test: p=0.0001(.

Conclusion: Modified warm-up showed greater impact on improving dynamic balance and some indicators of knee joint function in athletes, and it thereby provides more appropriate conditions for physical activity and reduces incidences of sport injuries.


Keywords


Warm-Up, Dynamic Balance, Knee Function, Modified Warm-Up

Full Text:

PDF

References


Fradkin, A.J., B.J. Gabbe, and P.A. Cameron, Does warming up prevent injury in sport?: The evidence from randomised controlled trials? Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2006. 9(3): p. 214-220.

Mohammadi, F., et al., Military Exercises, Knee and Ankle Joint Position Sense, and Injury in Male Conscripts: A Pilot Study. Journal of athletic training, 2013. 48(6): p. 790.

Wang, W., The Effects of Static Stretching Versus Dynamic Stretching on Lower Extremity Joint Range of Motion, Static Balance, and Dynamic Balance. 2013.

Daneshjoo, A., et al., The effects of comprehensive warm-up programs on proprioception, static and dynamic balance on male soccer players. 2012.

Salgado, E., F. Ribeiro, and J. Oliveira, Joint-position sense is altered by football pre-participation warm-up exercise and match induced fatigue. The Knee, 2015.

Kim, K., et al., The effects of diverse warm-up exercises on balance. Journal of physical therapy science, 2014. 26(10): p. 1601-1603.

Magalhães, T., et al., Warming-up before sporting activity improves knee position sense. Physical Therapy in Sport, 2010. 11(3): p. 86-90.

Kim, K., et al., The effects of diverse warm-up exercises on balance. Journal of physical therapy science, 2014. 26(10): p. 1601.

Frantz, T.L. and M.D. Ruiz, Effects of dynamic warm-up on lower body explosiveness among collegiate baseball players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2011. 25(11): p. 2985-2990.

Pohl, P., THE PATRIOT PROGRAM: A DYNAMIC WARM-UP FOR THE RISK REDUCTION OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJUREIS IN HIGH SCHOOL FEMALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS. 2013, The Sage Colleges.

Ryan, E.E., M.D. Rossi, and R. Lopez, The effects of the contract-relax-antagonist-contract form of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on postural stability. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2010. 24(7): p. 1888-1894.

Behm, D.G., et al., Effect of acute static stretching on force, balance, reaction time, and movement time. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 2004. 36: p. 1397-1402.

JR, A., H. GL, and W. KE, Physical rehabilitation of the injured athlete. 3rd edition ed. 2004, Philadelphia: SAUNDERS. 255,421,422.

Fitzgerald, G.K., et al., Hop tests as predictors of dynamic knee stability. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, 2001. 31(10): p. 588-597.

EItzEn, I., et al., A progressive 5-week exercise therapy program leads to significant improvement in knee function early after anterior cruciate ligament injury. journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, 2010. 40(11): p. 705-721.

Gustavsson, A., et al., A test battery for evaluating hop performance in patients with an ACL injury and patients who have undergone ACL reconstruction. Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, 2006. 14(8): p. 778-788.

Taylor, K.-L., et al., Negative effect of static stretching restored when combined with a sport specific warm-up component. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 2009. 12(6): p. 657-661.

Bartlett, M. and P. Warren, Effect of warming up on knee proprioception before sporting activity. British journal of sports medicine, 2002. 36(2): p. 132-134.

Cadogan, K.D., The Effects of a 10-Minute Warm-up on Postural Control in Subjects with Functional Ankle Instability. 2004.

Subasi, S.S., N. Gelecek, and G. Aksakoglu, Effects of different warm-up periods on knee proprioception and balance in healthy young individuals. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation, 2008. 17(2): p. 186.

Torres, R., J.A. Duarte, and J.M. Cabri, An acute bout of quadriceps muscle stretching has no influence on knee joint proprioception. Journal of human kinetics, 2012. 34(1): p. 33-39.

Asadi, A., E.S. de Villarreal, and H. Arazi, The Effects of Plyometric Type Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control Performance of Male Team Basketball Players. Journal of strength and conditioning research/National Strength & Conditioning Association, 2015.

Hadi, H., H. Farhady, and M. Bashiri, The Effects of a six-week strength and plyometric training program on dynamic balance of male student athletes. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences, 2011. 7(2).

Myer, G.D., et al., The effects of plyometric vs. dynamic stabilization and balance training on power, balance, and landing force in female athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2006. 20(2): p. 345-353.

Filipa, A., et al., Neuromuscular training improves performance on the star excursion balance test in young female athletes. Journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, 2010. 40(9): p. 551-558.

Yamaguchi, T. and K. Ishii, Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2005. 19(3): p. 677-683.

Sim, Y.-J., Y.-H. Byun, and J. Yoo, Comparison of isokinetic muscle strength and muscle power by types of warm-up. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 2015. 27(5): p. 1491-1494.

Holt, B.W. and K. Lambourne, The impact of different warm-up protocols on vertical jump performance in male collegiate athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 2008. 22(1): p. 226-229.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

pISSN: 2345-6167        eISSN: 2345-6159