Document Type: Original Articles
Department of Health and Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Iran
Eye Research Center, Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Background: Balance is an indispensable part of daily activities and is considered important in examining the performance of athletes especially in basketball. Despite the advantages of neck proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) training on neck proprioception, it has remained understudied. Neck proprioception is very important for performance in exercise. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of neck PNF training on neck proprioception on postural stability and limit of stability in elite female basketball players. Methods: In this study, 30 female basketball players with at least three years of basketball activity were randomly assigned into two groups: experimental group (neck PNF training) and control group. The experimental group participated in 4-week neck PNF training sessions (12 sessions per week). On the other hand, the control group performed only daily routine exercises. Limit of stability and postural stability index of the participants were determined by the Biodex balance test before and after the exercise program. Independent t-test (between the two groups) and paired t-test (in each group) were applied using the SPSS-18 software to analyze the obtained data, with a significance level of p<0.05 adopted. Results: The results indicated that after 4 weeks of neck PNF training, the means of overall stability index in the exercise group decreased from 1.47±0.27 to 0.92±0.07 (P<0.001). Also, for mediolateral index, it declined from 1.17±0.37 to 0.85±0.35 (P=0.04), and for the anteroposterior index it fell from 1.14±0.13 to 0.92±0.08 (P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences between prepost training in the control group. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that neck PNF training can be used to enhance the postural stability and limit of stability indices of basketball players. The neck proprioception may be improved with training programs, and neck PNF training improved postural stability index can reduce sports injuries and enhance athletic performance.
- Curtolo M, Tucci HT, Souza TP, GonÃ§alves GA, Lucato AC, Yi LC. Balance and postural control in basketball players. Fisioterapia em Movimento. 2017;30(2):319-28.
- Notarnicola A, Maccagnano G, Tafuri S, Pesce V, Digiglio D, Moretti B. Effects of training on postural stability in young basketball players. Muscles, ligaments and tendons journal. 2015;5(4):310-315.
- Boccolini G, Brazzit A, Bonfanti L, Alberti G. Using balance training to improve the performance of youth basketball players. Sport sciences for health. 2013;9(2):37-42.
- Pinsault N, Vuillerme N. Degradation of cervical joint position sense following muscular fatigue in humans. Spine. 2010;35(3):294-7.
- Grant JCB. An atlas of anatomy: by regions: Williams & Wilkins; 1962.
- Okhravi SM, Zavveyeh MK, Kalantari KK, Baghban AA, Karimi MT. A study on the effects of general fatigue on head and neck proprioception in healthy young adults. Ortopedia, traumatologia, rehabilitacja. 2015;17(1):1-6.
- Reddy RS, Alahmari KA. Cervical proprioception evaluation using cervical range of motion device: A narrative review. Saudi Journal of Sports Medicine. 2015;15(2):127-130.
- Pettorossi VE, Schieppati M. Neck proprioception shapes body orientation and perception of motion. Frontiers in human neuroscience. 2014;8(4):895-908.
- Abrahams V. The physiology of neck muscles; Their role in head movement and maintenance of posture. Canadian journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 1977;55(3):332-8.
- Gaerlan, Mary Grace,The role of visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems in postural balance. UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones. 2010. 357.
- Al SAif AA, Al SenAny S. Determine the effect of neck muscle fatigue on dynamic visual acuity in healthy young adults. Journal of physical therapy science. 2015;27(1):259-63.
- Afhami A. Effects of Proprioceptive Training on Head and Neck Kinematic Parameters against External Perturbations on Professional Male Karate Athletes. Journal of Research in Rehabilitation Sciences. 2016;12(3): 167-172.
- Rezasoltani A, Khaleghifar M, Tavakoli A, Ahmadi A, Minoonejad H. The effect of a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation program to increase neck muscle strength in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. World Journ of Sport Sci. 2010;3(1):59-63.
- Rezasoltani A, Khaleghifar M, Tavakoli A, Ahmadipour A. The comparison of neuromuscular facilitation exercises and traditional exercise therapy programs in the treating of patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Journal of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. 2009;8(1):59-68.
- Klein DA, Stone WJ, Phillips WT, Gangi J, Hartman S. PNF training and physical function in assisted-living older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity. 2002;10(4):476-88.
- Kim KD, Lee HJ, Lee MH, Ryu HJ. Effects of neck exercises on swallowing function of patients with stroke. Journal of physical therapy science. 2015;27(4):1005-8.
- Sandel ME. Herman Kabat: Neuroscience in translation from bench to bedside. PM&R. 2013;5(6):453-61.
- Ashton-Miller JA, Wojtys EM, Huston LJ, Fry-Welch D. Can proprioception really be improved by exercises? Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy. 2001;9(3):128-36.
- Adler SS, Beckers D, Buck M. PNF in practice: an illustrated guide: Springer; 2007.
- Kofotolis N, Kellis E. Effects of two 4-week proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation programs on muscle endurance, flexibility, and functional performance in women with chronic low back pain. Physical therapy. 2006;86(7):1001-12.
- Hindle K, Whitcomb T, Briggs W, Hong J. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF): Its mechanisms and effects on range of motion and muscular function. Journal of human kinetics. 2012;31:105-13.
- Sajjadi E, Olyaei G, Talebian S, Hadian M, Jalaei S, Mahmoudi R, et al. The effect of muscular fatigue on cervical joint position sense in young and healthy men and women: A preliminary study. Modern Rehabilitation. 2014;8(1):43-51.
- Agostini V, Chiaramello E, Canavese L, Bredariol C, Knaflitz M. Postural sway in volleyball players. Human movement science. 2013;32(3):445-56.
- Cachupe WJ, Shifflett B, Kahanov L, Wughalter EH. Reliability of biodex balance system measures. Measurement in physical education and exercise science. 2001;5(2):97-108.
- Bove M, Brichetto G, Abbruzzese G, Marchese R, Schieppati M. Neck proprioception and spatial orientation in cervical dystonia. Brain. 2004;127(12):2764-78.
- Paterno MV, Myer GD, Ford KR, Hewett TE. Neuromuscular training improves single-limb stability in young female athletes. Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. 2004;34(6):305-16.
- Karimi N, Ebrahimi I, Kahrizi S, Torkaman G. Evaluation of postural balance using the biodex balance system in subjects with and without low back pain. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences. 2008;24(3):372-377.
- Letafatkar A, Hadadnezhad M, Hasanzadeh S, Hatami M. The Effect of Muscular Fatigue on Neck Proprioception Performance between Elite Athletes and Non-Athletes. Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research. 2017;2(3):126-32.
- Schieppati M, Nardone A, Schmid M. Neck muscle fatigue affects postural control in man. Neuroscience. 2003;121(2):277-85.
- Gosselin G, Rassoulian H, Brown I. Effects of neck extensor muscles fatigue on balance. Clinical Biomechanics. 2004;19(5):473-9.
- Lee J-H, Park S-J, Na S-S. The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapy on pain and function. Journal of physical therapy science. 2013;25(6):713-6.